On July 17, 2017, the United States released a summary of the negotiating objectives for the renegotiation of NAFTA. U.S. objectives include deficit reduction, the inclusion of a chapter on the digital economy, and the inclusion and strengthening of labour and environmental commitments currently included in NAFTA`s ancillary agreements. On Wednesday, at the 2018 World Fortune Forum in Toronto, former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers described the recently negotiated U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) agreement as the previous NAFTA with no significant differences between the two agreements, in addition to the tensions surrounding the renegotiation process. For Summers, the revised trilateral free trade agreement brings only small benefits to the United States – including improved conditions in areas such as pharmaceuticals and dairy products. But these, he says, have come at a high price: the alienation of American allies, Canada and Mexico. Summers rightly points out that there was too much drama between the three parties during the negotiations, and the consequences of this tragedy are unlikely to fade soon. When Secretary of State Mike Pompeo travels to Mexico for a two-day visit, where he will „probably praise the Mexican team for the very exciting conclusion of the USMCA,“ we woke up again to a series of tweets from President Donald Trump threatening to send the military to the southern U.S. border if Mexico, along with Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador , does not stop, the caravan of nearly 4,000 migrants en route to the United States of Honduras. But there are some notable changes in the new agreement, despite the overheated and abrasive rhetoric of the Tweeter-in-Chief.
Chapter 27 on the fight against corruption is a chapter that will benefit all three parties in the same way. The chapter is almost an exact copy of Chapter 26 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which President Trump withdrew from the United States in January 2017 and which the other 11 members renamed and signed as a comprehensive and progressive agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (PPCC). Nevertheless, any effort to integrate anti-corruption commitments into a free trade agreement is a welcome development in the area of corruption and corruption, not to mention a timely development, as the waves of brazil`s Odebrecht scandal cross the hemisphere. The main objective of Chapter 27 is to „prevent and combat corruption and corruption in international trade and investment.“ The novelty of dedicating a full chapter to strengthen the trilateral commitment to fight corruption is a victory in itself, but the key element of the inclusion of preventive measures can really make a difference in turning paper into law and action. This is particularly true in Mexico, where significant gaps remain in the implementation of the anti-corruption regulation. Chapter 27 contains two important anti-corruption measures. First, it recognizes that much of the problem is rooted in corrupt governments. In other words, we must first clean our house. What do you mean? Through a series of measures – including the training of individuals by the government in public positions at risk of corruption – aimed at „promoting integrity, honesty and accountability among their officials.“